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石油石化噪聲控制

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噪聲問題


石油石化企業噪聲來源非常廣。有由于氣體壓力突變產生的氣流噪聲,如壓縮空氣、高壓蒸汽放空、加熱爐、催化“三機”室等;有由于機械的摩擦、振動、撞擊或高速旋轉產生的機械性噪聲,如:球磨機、空氣錘、原油泵、粉碎機、機械性傳送帶等;有由于磁場交變,脈動引起電器件振動而產生的電磁噪聲,如:變壓器。

石油石化企業噪聲污染具有廣泛性和持久性。一方面,石油石化企業生產工藝的復雜性使得噪聲源廣泛,影響面大;另一方面,只要聲源不停止運轉,噪聲影響就不會停止,工人就會受到持久的噪聲干擾或影響,所以,石油石化企業中生產性噪聲多為高強度的連續性穩態混合噪聲。


解決方案


石化煉制企業裝置噪聲綜合治理雖有一定難度,但結合設備自身的運行特點采用切合實際的隔聲、消聲、吸聲、阻尼、減振等綜合噪聲治理措施。

泵類,泵組兩側安裝兩道可移動式的隔聲屏障,阻斷和改變泵組噪聲的傳播。

加熱爐,在現有外殼處粘貼一層自粘性阻尼,然后阻尼外再包一層鍍鋅板,構成一束阻尼隔聲密封結構,通過安裝時較好的密封,降低燃燒器輻射噪聲。

壓縮機,作為主要噪聲源,包含電機電磁、電機風扇、連軸器等,采取在噪聲處安裝U型隔聲罩。

廠界噪聲,空冷平臺及底部風機是廠界的敏感噪聲,在空冷平臺裝置區設置隔聲屏障。

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通過對典型煉油裝置噪聲源的分析,石化煉制企業的噪聲重點部位主要集中在泵、加熱爐、空冷、壓縮機等設備,相應措施主要為隔聲,其次消聲,吸聲以及阻尼,減振等,采取適應石化煉制企業裝置特點,便于檢維修和巡檢。

 

 

 

Noise problem

    Petroleum & Petrochemical enterprises have wide noise sources, including the airflow noise caused by the sudden gas pressure change of such as compressed air, high-pressure steam discharged, heating furnace, catalysis “three-machine” room; the mechanical noise caused by mechanical friction, vibration, collision and high-speed rotation of such as ball grinding mill, air hammer, petroleum pump, crusher, and mechanical transmission belt; as well as the electromagnetic noise resulted from the vibration of electric device , such as transformer, caused by alternating magnetic field and impulse. 
    The noise pollution of petroleum & petrochemical enterprise is rather extensive and durable. On one hand, the complicated production technology makes noise source more extensive and influential; on the other hand, as long as the sound source does not cease, its outcome will not end and workers may be heavily annoyed and influenced by it; therefore, most of the noise produced from the production sequence in petroleum & petrochemical enterprises is of high-strength steady-state mixed noise.


Solution


    It is rather difficult to launch a comprehensive solution to address petrochemical equipment noise, but the comprehensive noise control measures, such as sound insulation, noise elimination, sound absorption, damping and vibration reduction, can be adopted in line with their operating characteristics.
    For pump: two portable sound barriers can be installed at both sides of the pump set so as to disrupt and divert the noise diffusion.
    For heating furnace: a self-viscous damping can be laid on the existing housing; then a galvanized sheet can be used to cover the damper to form a damping & sound insulation enclosure. The well sealed structure can be selected to reduce the radiation noise of combustor.
    For compressor: The compressor is a major noise source, including motor electromagnet, motor fan, coupler, so the U-shaped acoustic hood can be used at the place where makes noise.
    For noise within factory boundary: the air-cooling platform and the bottom fan are the sensitive noise sources within factory boundary; so the acoustic shields can be equipped there.
    

    Through analysis on the noise source of typical refining equipment, included in the key noise control area for the petrochemical enterprises are pump, heating furnace, air-cooling device, compressor and other equipment; the noise control measures are sound insulation, denoising, sound absorption, damping, and vibration reduction. The specific noise control measure must suit to the characteristics of petrochemical equipment to facilitate test, maintenance and inspection.